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小聊设计思想的发展。Design Thinking 概览。

九月 27th, 2018  |  澳门新葡亰

企业半年会后各地都于谈计划思想,各处都当拼搏。我们领导人还是怪跟得达潮流的呗。因于哈佛经贸评论和福布斯的报导后“设计思想”在买卖中叫大规模关注及履行起来。前几乎年美国头号商学院就将计划思想(design
thinking)纳入课程体系,斯坦福大学成立D.School等。在John
Maeda《科技中之规划》年报告,很多大企业及独角兽的创始人或高层里还发设计师在其中,像IBM和麦肯锡前段时间宣布了那个无与伦比高级职业中对设计师的选。从04年及2016年起越50下显赫规划企业叫买断,其中15,16年来26小。可见设计以商业的偏重,及企划思想的炎热。虽然老生气,可能过多总人口觉着他像VR、大数额、共享自行车等正起来之。实际上,“设计思想”(实际为是计划)做吧同种植办法已走过了一如既往段落非欠的发展历史了。何不鸣金收兵一下,了解一下前身和近况也。做扫尾桌面研究后即便花了接触时间整理了该文,把自工业时代到本影响设计思想的人做只稍介绍,因涉内容实在是最多了,被加大上来之,纯粹是圈怎么着人熟悉,哪些人记录的详尽些,不对的地方要指正,感谢伟大的互联网,感谢吧宏图思想付诸实践的“先烈”们。

作者:Thomas Lockwood, University of Westminster PhD, Integrated design
Management.

1960前方 包豪斯之计划思想,人文与奢华,国际现代主义和大众文化

涉工业革命,大萧条和二战后底工业设计。 兼顾效率生产及美学为主的时。

Design Thinking 概览

统筹思想本质上是盖用户也基本,强调考察,协作,快速学习,视觉化点子,快速概念原型,兼商业分析,最终影响创新和商策略的翻新过程。他的目的是管顾客,设计师和商贸人士组成至成品、服务或者商业的宏图过程及。它是想像未来状态与管产品,服务及心得带顶市场高达之家伙。设计思想术语上来拘禁像是运用设计师的机灵与艺术解决问题,不管问题是怎么样的。它不能够取代专业设计师或方法与手艺设计,但它是启发创新之等同栽艺术。

规划思想的几个举足轻重条件:

1.基于现场调研深入了解消费者

2.及用户与复合型团队联手协作,寻找突破性创新、显著提升和增加新价值及

3.由此视觉化,亲手体验以及高速原型来加快学习,快速取得用户举报。目标是经过快捷多次底黄来取更新。

4.原型化,可以是概念草图,粗糙的大体模块,或故事角色板,或一致组场景故事等

5.相互进行买卖分析,是挺重点之某些。

彼得·贝伦斯(Peter Behrens)

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的前驱,第一员当代艺术设计师,是当代人的高手,包括无与伦比有名的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡大半“的修建哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三口都当他的工作室为他干活了。他是第一个尝试综合工艺和技术结合的设计师。

Design Thinking / Design management / Design Leadership / Design strategy 的区别

作者的眼光是,
设计思想是同样种植助发现非显性的需要还是会,帮助创建新的缓解方案的方式。设计管理偏重于管理和主任设计团队,过程及设计产出物(产品、服务、沟通、环境暨互相)。设计负责人和计划策略更多着想的是计划性思想与筹划管理的频率及出现物上。

包豪斯:全新设计策略的傅

1919年格罗皮乌斯以德国创造包豪斯,是第一所用贝伦斯的想法应用到高等教学中。密斯是最终一顶校长。1930年以纳粹的压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬为美国,二战后包豪斯的筹划哲学(平衡术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国的规划思想,随着这些人在美国诸处落脚,设计之考虑运动也当全美各地开。

筹思想在买卖、品牌,服务统筹,客户体验上

更新驱动商业的差别,设计使得创新。

然而我们的问题一度远超越了商业问题,像MIT和哈佛于化解的题目早已是网层面的问题,像我们的食物供给体系,儿童肥胖,急救健康等,作为一个设计师和规划思考者,有这样的时错过化解这样的题目是何等的愉快,通过自己力所能及影响以及改动社会问题。

设计协作与咨询在美国向上启动

1920-1930期间及包豪斯同产生震慑之美国工业与图片设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是以美国落地之),这些设计师将规划协作和咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的启蒙合影响在美国之图像及工业规划。

  • 哈利·厄尔 Harley
    Earl
    ,首各项在筹划汽车上使用市场分策略的设计师

    Chevrolet Corvette

  • 雷蒙德·洛威 Raymond
    Loewy
    ,设计咨询升级现有技术活
    在不转移任何技术下,通过做美学、材料、制造大大改观十分年代丑陋之家电产品,第一各类上上《时代》的设计师。他的计划性不同为包豪斯的“形式从功能”(Form
    Follows
    Function),较偏于市场主义的“形式从市场”,他一度说了:“当商品以平等之价以及法力下竞争,设计虽是唯一的异样”。他起及时极端酷的计划性企业,接授设计委托,并以“洛威设计”的名义发表,“洛威设计”在生年代是平栽名特新优精设计之意味、销售保障的代名词,这同样作法在今天呢能见于一些统筹企业。

    洛威的“阿汎提”设计草图,1963年

  • 亨利·德雷福斯 Henry
    Dreyfuss
    ,把人口因为因素做也活之骨干设计
    于其1955年的登之《Designing for
    People》同题被阐释了以人口耶以之计划性意见,以人也着力的计划极端早实践者和开拓者。

    Designing for People 书中节选

  • 保罗·兰德 Paul
    Rand
    ,将品牌识别与国际主义相结合
    IBM,ABC,FEEDX,西屋、NeXT等视觉系统的宏图,将包豪斯倡导之现世法及规划思想及美学标准,应用到商贸服务规划着。

    IBM

ABC

“Design is relationship. Design is a relationship between form and
content.”

  • 乔治·尼尔森和查里斯夫妇,为家庭和办公室系统规划
    1945年乔治·尼尔森于Herman
    Miller做规划总监时即管规划思想带上了家电概念设计中,设计师不在单干而是同平等浩大的设计师从网环境的角度来拘禁产品设计。在就同样眼光与策略下查里斯同雷·埃蒙斯设计了Eames
    Loung
    Chair。Charles经常鼓励工作人员多举行试验,他就说他的要就是“和那些从为毫无用处之类型的人数联袂工作。这样见面打产生新想之火舌。”

    Eames Loung Chair

Chapter 1 Notes on the Evolution of Design Thinking: A Work in Progress

发展中的计划性思想

by Craig M. Vogel, Director of Center for Design Research and
Innovation, College of Design Architecture, Art and Planning, University
of Cincinnati

1960-1980 建立统筹执行,设计活动集中

筹执行以短短的20年时间跨度里,不仅更定义了计划是呀,更是证实了她可以据此来开啊。这个相对短但非常密集的号于大地范围外出生了少种植截然不同之统筹方。
60年份的美国=设计是
60年代的美国,工业规划以及产品设计取得的率先小步的前行是正经上由工程与科学区分出。但他俩连不曾动得重新远,工业设计尚是重点因可量化,可度量的题材和事件。设计工作室通常以大学实验室或工厂,不像现在底工作室以乡镇里生像咖啡厅一样的装潢。
意味着来像MIT的Fuller建立多学科的奇才团队进行翻新。

60年间斯堪的纳维亚=协同计划
于同一期,Fuller不同的斯堪的纳维亚统筹,通过邀请大学与统筹讨论。这些设计师扮演促进者或指导者角色,每个人以及学者及工友要居民共同规划他们顾念如果动用的出品或者劳务。开发了许多惊人创新的门类,像Utopia,NJMF,DEMOkratiske
Stryringssystemer,DEMOS等援助工人,工会,工作场地,政府部门应针对不断变化的条件。
这种工作方法一直适用于我们本取的劳务统筹,这种工作章程严重依赖设计师的边做边筹划和导,使用工具如”Mock-up
envisionment(模拟设想)”,未来围,组织游戏,合作原型,人种学领域研究,社会考察等产生新想法要改进水土保持。高度与
和佚代,集体讨论。
交20世纪80年份中期,因为计算机的普及和HCI(人机交互)的开拓进取,斯堪的纳维亚之协作企划终于迈出大西洋赶到美国,被大地喻为参与式设计。

PETER BEHRENS: CORPORATE IDENTITY AND BRAND DIFFERENTIATION

Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a
German
architect
and
designer.
He was important for the modernist
movement,
and several of the movement’s leading names (including Ludwig Mies van
der
Rohe,
Le
Corbusier
and Walter
Gropius)
worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. He was one of the
first designers who tried to synthesize the two polar positions of
technology and craft.

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的前驱,第一员当代艺术设计师,是当代人的一把手,包括无与伦比资深的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就是大抵“的构哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三人犹当外的工作室为外干活了。他是率先单尝试综合工艺及技能构成的设计师。

Buckminister Fuller 的不易统筹

1956年自从以MIT 创意工程实验室教授CADS(Comprehensive Anticipatory Design
Science)。他的实验室应用科学方法有设计。Fuller的方法成立在工程师、工业设计师、材料专家、化学专家的英才团队的底蕴及展开更新。代表作品有:Geodesic
Domestic, the Dymaxion car, Triton city, the “Fly’s Eye” Dome等。

the Dymaxion car

“设计师是概括了艺术家,发明家,机械师,经济专家以及策略让平套。”

The BAUHAUS: A NEW DESIGN STRATEGY FOR EDUCATION

包豪斯:全新设计策略的启蒙

1919年格罗皮乌斯于德创建包豪斯,是第一所将贝伦斯的想法应用到高等教学中。密斯是最后一交校长。1930年在纳粹的下压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬向美国,二战后包豪斯的规划哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国底设计思想,随着这些人口于美国各国处落脚,设计的合计运动也以全美各地放。

Scandinavian 协同计划

50年代盖略、少、功能性,具有包容性和民主性为特色之了有别于其他设计艺术的Scandinavian设计活动,在北欧国家一直本着系到今天。受语言的障碍使得这同一动没有记录并传播更普遍。60年间的Scandinavian协同计划于微机的人机交互与劳务统筹及生成百上千的进化。

Chairs at the Danish Design Center, Denmark

CORPORATE AND CONSULTING DESIGN IN THE UNITED STATES,设计协作与咨询在美国底升华

1920-1930以内以及包豪斯同产生震慑的美国工业及图纸设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是以美国诞生的),这些设计师将设计协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的傅上一同影响着美国底图像以及工业设计。

Harley Earl and General Motors: Market Segmentation in the Auto Industry

Harley Earl 美国篇号在设计汽车及利用市场分策略,1927-1959

Raymond Loewy, Design Consultant: Updating Existing Technology

Loewy merged aesthetics, materials, and manufacturing to transform the
loud and ugly electric refrigerator of the 1920s into a modern kichen
appliance. The consumer response was immediate. In one year, sales of
Sears’s Cold Spot increased from 65,000 to 250,000 units – without any
significant change in core technology.

Henry Dreyfuss: Integrating Human Factors as a Core Component of Product
Design

Dreyfuss developed a more scientific approach to human factors and
integrated that perspective with product aesthetics. “to develop
individuals who will be competent to change their environment to greater
conformity with moral ideals.” This became the basis for Dreyfuss’s
human-centered approach. He expressed those ideas in his 1955 book,
Designing for people. Dreyfuss was a more articulate practitioner of
human-centered design than was Loewy.

Paul Rand and Elliot Noyes: Corporate Identity and the International
Movement

Noyes was educated as an architect at Harvard and studied under Gropius
and Bauhaus furniture designer Marcel Breuer. Rand, for his part, was
heavily influenced by what had come to be called the Swiss Style of
graphic design and helped to build a relationship between Switzerland’s
Basel school of Design and Yale University.

One of the first strategic design decisions Rand and Noyes conceived for
international Business Machines was to reduce its long and awkward name
to IBM. Modern identities, they believed, needed to be easy to read and
pronounce in all applications and all languages. The new logo and
identity system was integrated with an approach to curtain wall
architecture that was applied to the new buildings at IBM, as well as to
the outer panel construction design of mainframe computer systems.

George Nelson and Charles and Ray Eames: System Design for Home and Work

When George Nelson was appointed design director for Herman Miller in
1945, he brought a new level of design thinking to the concept of
furniture design for the home and office.

Modern office buildings were being designed using a systematic approach,
and Nelson saw the interior office landscape similarly-as a potential
opportunity for the application of modular design design systems. Each
individual piece of furniture would act as one in a series of flexible
parts with multiple configurations that would fit the modern open office
that had come into being in the 1950s and ’60s.

The husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames contributed some of
their most important designs under this new strategy. Both of them
studied at Michigan’s Cranbrook Academy of Art, and both were influenced
by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. The Eames lounge chair and airport
seating solution, for Herman Miller, are two of the most influential
design projects of the twentieth century.

The ideas and work of Charles and Ray Eames represent a unique and vital
branch of design thinking. Their work is as powerful and influential as
that of Frank Lloyd Wright; yet they are virtually unknown outside of
the fields of design and architecture.

Herbert A. Simon

西蒙于1969出版的人工科学中,给规划一个初的分类及限。西蒙认为满门的统筹应吃视为人造品,是本来的对立面。

“The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how
things ought to be — how they ought to be in order to attain goals,
and to function.”

“Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing
existing situations into preferred ones.”

FROM PRODUCT TO ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE

In 1975 Bill Hannon founded the Design Management Institute(DMI) in
Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first professional organization in
the world dedicated to improving the role of design in business, and
helped to define design management as a new practice.

In 1976 Victor Papanek published his Design for the Real World, asking
designers to see the potential of design thinking for social and
environmental responsibility. He accused designers of catering to the
small percentage of consumers who have everything, while ignoring those
in lower income levels and emerging economies, as well as people with
disabilities.

In 1982, Ralph Caplan wrote in By design that Mahatma Gandhi’s concept
of nonviolent protest was one of the most effective design solutions in
history.

The Nobel laureate Herb Simon stated that there are really two types of
science. One concerns the world humans are responsible for producing(the
science of the artificial), and the other concerns the world in which
humans evolved(the science of the natural).

Science, engineering, and technology factor shifts have occurred in each
decade in the last century, opening new opportunities for designers. The
key ingredient for business success is the presence of both an
innovative CEO who sees design as an investment, not a cost, and a
strategic design director or consultant who can place the value of the
design at the center of the company. If either one leaves, the value of
design is jeopardized.
把规划作为是斥资于,是无是资产;设计策略是店的主干;这简单接触缺一不可才可能在今天及前景改成创新驱动之小卖部。

维克多·帕帕奈克 为真实世界计划

1971年
帕帕奈克的《为真世界计划》给这的规划行业投下了一样粒很炸弹。帕帕奈克提出自己对规划目的性的新见解,即设计应该吗周边老百姓服务;设计不仅应当为正常人服务,同时还须考虑吧残疾人服务;设计应当认真考虑地球的少资源采取问题,设计应
为保障我们居住的地球的有限资
源服务。维克多·帕帕奈克对绿色设计思潮有了一直影响,他首蹩脚提出了设计伦理的价值观,即设计为何?在“波普”设计活动的平等切开喧嚣的大潮中,开始有人从筹划理论的角度严肃提出“设计目的”问题。这对于当代筹的五常、现代统筹之目的性理论来说,是颇重大的一个起点。正因为生这起点,日后的规划理论才出现了逾深入之向上。

Chapter 2 The Designful Company by Marty Neumeier

2008 Survey of Wicked Problems

  1. Balancing long-term goals with short-term demands
  2. Predicting returns on innovative concepts
  3. Innovating at the increasing speed of change
  4. Winning the war for world-class talent
  5. Combining profitability with social responsibility
  6. Protecting margins in a commoditizing industry
  7. Multiplying success by collaborating across silos
  8. Finding unclaimed yet profitable market space
  9. Addressing the challenge of eco-sustainability
  10. Aligning strategy with customer experience

A wicked problem is a puzzle so persistent, pervasive, and slippery that
it can seem insoluble.

Business at bottom is not mechanical but human. Today, we find that
innovation without emotion is uninteresting. Products without aesthetics
are not compelling, brands without meaning are undesirable, and business
without ethics is unsustainable. The management model that got us here
is underpowered to move us forward. To succeed, the new model must
replace the win-lose nature of the assembly line with the win-win nature
of the network.

商贸的下线无是机而是食指。今天,我们发现创新没有感情是未曾意思的。产品无美是无可比性的,品牌未曾意义价值是勿会见发生欲望想使的,而商没有伦理是不足持续的。

The sure cure for Deming’s diseases, as well as for the top ten wicked
problems, is design. It’s the accelerator for the company car, the
powertrain for sustainable profits. Design drives innovation, innovation
powers brand, brand builds loyalty, and loyalty sustains profits. If you
want long-term profits, don’t start with technology-start with design.

There are really only two main components for business success: brands
and their delivery. All other activities- operations, finance,
manufacturing, marketing, sales, communications, human relations,
investor relations- are subcomponents.

Horst Rittel, “Wicked Problem”的倡导者

首批判聚焦让统筹方式理论的研究者之一,与他的前辈们不同,他主持人之感受及感在设计时之第一。第一破用气象学引入到经验设计受到。

1980-1990 第二替代设计思想理论的产出

这个时期人们把装有莫大创意的设计师和常见的统筹区分开来,把这些设计师在显微镜下研究,试着找找来什么为她们灵感大爆发。在Nigel
Gross和Donald
Schön等研究员调查研究这些设计师独立工作经常,及团体合作时的规划过程。从社会是角度他们注意到不管是个人或者国有协作时设计创意无限重点的凡设计师的思辨模式。这些规划过程的查证也新兴其他工作进行创造性思维打开了大门。

Nigel Gross

Nigel
Gross在研究规划艺术之前是人机交互领域的研究员。在他的精本《Designerly
ways of
Knowing》研设计师的合计与表决办法及其他专业不同之是呀?这对于构建统筹思想有着特别挺之熏陶。

“Everyone can — and does — design. We all design when we plan for
something new to happen, whether that might be a new version of a
recipe, a new arrangement of the living room furniture, or a new lay
tour of a personal web page. […] So design thinking is something
inherent within human cognition; it is a key part of what makes us
human.”

Donald Alan Schön

Donald Schön
背景是MIT的城市规划的任课与哲学家,他的大部干活以反对60年代的计划规范的技术性。他付出之反思实践,对于规划过程的成十分主要。他的办事不仅大大影响了统筹,而且影响了集团上世界。

“The reflective practitioner allows himself to experience surprise,
puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or
unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior
understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries
out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of
the phenomenon and a change in the situation.”

1990-2005 服务计划和诸多统筹工具的起

这时代,设计的范围第二糟糕扩大。在90年份初设计的克从创立人工制品扩大至相互与服务及。这种转移支持自Buchanan的《设计思想中之凶狠问题》一书写探讨了统筹缓解复杂问题、模糊目标的潜力。
及2003年,欧洲无处的高校及卡内基梅隆在处处开始教服务计划。服务规划的兴起,及复杂问题吃来新的规划艺术工具提供了好环境,包括也不设计师以及介入计划之工具。

Donald Norman, User-Centered Design

认知是、人以工程等统筹领域的显赫世界。在1988年问世的《日常的规划》提出
“UCD”以用户为着力的计划。
我们有的筹划应该根据“适合用记”这个大概的概念模型。他的观的主干是“我们日常生活中的绝大多数知识且于条件上,而不是当脑力里”,以用户也着力的措施好理解用户的需要跟发现左,并采取行动解决。诺曼的UCD设计思想开辟了新的规划艺术视角。

Richard Buchanan,整合设计

Buchanan 原卡梅隆设计学院的主管,他经过将Rittel和Simon
的理论与
Ezio
Manzini的宏图执行相沟通,重新讨论了设计以缓解Wicked
Problems中的角色,在1992发表之《Wicked Problems in Design
Thinking》中画了相同长规划思想到更新的路径。在随后的有关计划思想的《Design
as a New Liberal
Art》中说设计开啊标准的能力是“整合”,也许是坐专业性的缺失,所以她更有连日各个学科的可能。

Design has no subject matter — that’s what make this a powerful
discipline. We MAKE our subject matter.

Liz Sanders 工具先导者

Sanders,实验心理学与人类学的PhD. ,Make
Tools的创作者,是运用设计研究领域的先驱者。今天众以人口啊骨干的宏图及规划思想被使的家伙,技术以及措施都好落她。她为是协作企划工具箱的合伙人,对于规划研究感兴趣的人口的话,这个是一个实用的指针。

Convivial ToolBox

This human-centered design revolution is causing us to rethink the
design process. In order to drive the human-centered design
revolution, we need to tap into the imaginations and dreams not only
of designers, but also of everyday people. New design spaces are
emerging in response to everyday people’s needs for creativity.

IDEO 融汇者

IDEO

IDEO1991年经常由于三家设计企业合而变成,分别是David Delley
Design(斯坦福教授 David Kelley 创建),Based在伦敦底Moggridge
Associates和以旧金山的ID-Two(两者都是由Bill Moggridge创建), 及 Matrix
Product Design(由Mike Nuttall
创建)。大约于Buchanan构建统筹思想的还要,IDEO完成了三个公司之合,在未来底十年更上一层楼遭受,从学界以及统筹执行吸引了一如既往批判好有影响力的人口入。
和同时期的计划企业不同,他们又邀请了人类学,商业战略,教育要正常相当不同领域的大方来指导与扩大他们设计团队及流程。这个多学科团队的国策在初始几年晚获取了无数底桂冠。
随后他俩开普及设计思想以及坐食指乎核心的统筹,在d.school推出了教育计划,撰写书本,并于全世界之高校实践推广。

David & Tom Kelley

IDEO两单大家当和教导工作,Kelley兄弟都是畅销书的撰稿人。
他们还擅长设计到商家管理。他们合作之写《创新自信力》,讲述创新创意之意,帮助个人及单位释放潜能,树立创新自信。
急忙前的Tom
Kelley的《创新之计》里展示了IDEO创新思维。

“It turns out that creativity isn’t some rare gift to be enjoyed by
the lucky few — it’s a natural part of human thinking and behavior. In
too many of us it gets blocked. But it can be unblocked. And
unblocking that creative spark can have far-reaching implications for
yourself, your organization, and your community.” Tom Kelley

Tim Brown

[Tim Brown]
(https://www.ideo.com/people/tim-brown)IDEOIDEO)的CEO和工业设计师,
Brown一直是设计思想以及翻新之积极向上倡导者 ,Design
thinking。他写作了诸多针对性非设计师运用计划思想方面的文章,其中统筹变更一切,设计思想如何变革组织和激发创新。

In order to survive in today’s complex world, organizations need to
generate, embrace, and execute on new ideas. That takes creativity and
a creatively capable workforce. It’s the secret sauce, or in
evolutionary terms, it’s what keeps you fit. Organizations without it
can’t compete.

Jane Fulton Suri

发出心理学和打学背景的IDEO 教母之称的Jane,
一直从为开发多IDEO以人口耶以的计划性工具。引用其当IDEO的历程“她开了移情观察和感受原型的艺,现在深受普遍用于产品、服务和环境,及系统、组织同策略的换代以及设计及。”她的书写《Thoughtless
Acts?》
展示了直白观测和统筹灵感中的关系。她多年来创作了《Design
Ethics》的短篇。

Bill Moggridge

英国有名产品设计师,工业规划教学,交互设计以及IDEO创始人。他因为采纳人性工程设计理论,同时为是现产品设计主流理论的开发者。他计划了第一令贝壳式笔记本电脑,至今仍是笔记本的主流外型。他撰写的《关键设计报告》介绍了互设计的历史,从Douglas
Engelbart到Will
Wright
到 Larry
Page
和 Sergey
Brin。

I don’t think that anyone has really told (people) what design is. It
doesn’t occur to most people that everything is designed — that every
building and everything they touch in the world is designed. Even
foods are designed now. So in the process of helping people understand
this, making them more aware of the fact that the world around us is
something that somebody has control of, perhaps they can feel some
sense of control, too. I think that’s a nice ambition.

2002-现在 设计思想在经贸领域站据了一个着重之职位

自从20年前设计思想开始受提及,经历了广大底迭代,最近才取得认同。
设计咨询公司包括“IDEO”,
数码智能设计企业如“青蛙”,软件设计公司假设“思特沃克”,服务统筹企业要“肯定牛”等都以02-08年前后起调整好的经贸战略,现在就改为企划行业之领先者。国内的企业转变比较晚到了2013年左右才开调整,像Eico
Design。
假如商业擅长的商号如麦肯锡等,也当2014年起经过收购计划企业拓展战略性之革命。[科技中的设计\ 2017](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://designintechreport.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/dit-2017-1-0-1c-1.pdf)
劳务计划领域的开拓进取创建了协作规划和涉企设计之初工具及流程。多学科团队的搭档计划这同变打开了间创新,使设计过程对每个人重新透明与有效。除了在统筹领域在经贸领域为开运用用计划思想以及搭档企划之实践。Fuad
Luke,Sanders 和Manzini就是这块的开路先锋。
向阳包容性迈进的成形。随着智能手机的推广,微软提出如果面向大众的筹划,带在前所未有的包容性去思想和行事[Inclusive\ design\ at\ Microsoft](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/design/inclusive)

Alistair Fuad-Luke

Fuad-Luke同样各类自称为标准规划主持人、教育家、作家与活动家,目前着授课后来的筹划执行。他的类别强调和社区和私,社会福得和代表经济体系之开,合作,共同企划。他的书《Design
Activism》和《The
Eco-Design
Handbook》议论设计在可持续发展中之意向。

Deborah Szebeko

Szebeko23春经常于英国确立了ThinkPublic社会设计机构,专门从事公共部门和非政府组织的统筹和更新。用合作计划重点关注社会问题,他们都得到了大半桩殊荣。

We use a mixture of design processes. We’ve got a diversity of
designers, including service designers, graphics designers,
information designers, programmers, marketers, social scientists,
positive psychologists, and even anthropologists. This diversity of
experts bring different techniques related to their disciplines, and
this mixture creates a unique design process — we call it a co-design
process — whereby we capture public views.

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

Kat
holmes微软首席设计总监,随着智能设备的家常,科技产品应该关心群众,应该朝着包容性迈进转变。设计个性具有包容,通过辨认排他性,我们会起针对那些在日常生活中及匪为欢迎之计划接触的用户建立从及理心。

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

以资源来以下:
[1] Thomas Lockwood. Design Thinking (Design Management Institue,
2009)
[2] John Maeda. Design In Tech Report(2016,2017)
[3] Jo Szczepanska. What is design thinking, why do I keep hearing
about
it?
[4] A BRIEF HISTORY OF DESIGN THINKING: THE
THEORY
[5] 大卫·瑞兹曼. 现代设计史
[6] Stefanie Di Russo.Understanding the behaviour of design thinking
in complex environments(2016)
[7] Rikke Dam, Teo Siang. What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So
Popular?
[8] Sean Van Tyne. Design Thinking: A Brief
History

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